Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning: Start


Welcome - this guide is intended to introduce you to library resources and information for research on artificial intelligence and machine learning topics. Below you will find AI related vocabulary in alphabetical order. 

Artificial Intelligence (AI): AI is a branch of computer science. AI systems use hardware, algorithms, and data to create “intelligence” to do things like make decisions, discover patterns, and perform some sort of action. AI systems can be built in different ways, two of the primary ways are: (1) through the use of rules provided by a human (rule-based systems); or (2) with machine learning algorithms.

Algorithm: Algorithms are the “brains” of an AI system and what determines decisions in other words, algorithms are the rules for what actions the AI system takes. 

Chat-based generative pre-trained transformer (ChatGPT) models: A system built with a neural network transformer type of AI model that works well in natural language processing tasks.

Deep Learning: Deep learning models are a subset of neural networks. With multiple hidden layers, deep learning algorithms are potentially able to recognize more subtle and complex patterns. Like neural networks, deep learning algorithms involve interconnected nodes where weights are adjusted, but as mentioned earlier there are more layers and more calculations that can make adjustments to the output to determine each decision. 

Generative AI (GenAI): A type of machine learning that generates content.

Large language models (LLMs) Large language models (LLMs) form the foundation for generative AI (GenAI) systems. GenAI systems include some chatbots and tools. LLMs are artificial neural networks. At a very basic level, the LLM detected statistical relationships between how likely a word is to appear following the previous word in their training. As they answer questions or write text, LLM’s use the model of the likelihood of a word occurring to predict the next word to generate. LLMs are a type of foundation model, which are pre-trained with deep learning techniques on massive data sets of text documents.

Training Data: This is the data used to train the algorithm or machine learning model. It has been generated by humans in their work or other contexts in their past. While it sounds simple, training data is so important because the wrong data can perpetuate systemic biases. 

Machine Learning (ML): Machine learning is a field of study with a range of approaches to developing algorithms that can be used in AI systems. AI is a more general term. In ML, an algorithm will identify rules and patterns in the data without a human specifying those rules and patterns. These algorithms build a model for decision making as they go through data. 

Neural Networks (NN): Neural networks also called artificial neural networks (ANN) and are a subset of ML algorithms. They were inspired by the interconnections of neurons and synapses in a human brain. In a neural network, after data enter in the first layer, the data go through a hidden layer of nodes where calculations that adjust the strength of connections in the nodes are performed, and then go to an output layer.

*Definitions are from the Center for Integrative Research in Computer and Learning Sciences. 

AI Literacy

With so many developments in AI it's important for everyone to understand this technology. AI literacy is having the skills and competencies required to use AI technologies and applications effectively and ethically.


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