While criminal justice refers to the system of law enforcement, courts, and corrections, criminology is a separate discipline. Criminology refers to the study of the nature, extent, and causes of criminal offending and victimization. By understanding these two fields and the overlap between them, we are able to gain a more holistic perspective of the criminal justice system and the society in which we live.
1. Positivist Theories a) Humans are born a "blank slate" and non-criminal --if experiences are bad or teach that crime is acceptable, then crime is more likely; b) Deterministic (no free will); Criminogenic forces 'cause' individuals and groups to be more likely to commit crime, commit serious offenses, and offend at a higher rate.
2. Classical Theories a) Human nature is selfish and crime is a quick and easy way to get what you want-criminal behavior comes naturally to us. Why obey the law? b) assumes free will c) factors that influence perceived penalties and benefits for crime are explained here:
Use the RIT Libraries Catalog to find books on this topic. Use the keywords criminology theory.