The resources on this page will offer information about how to create references (citations), in-text citations, paper formatting, and more.
The Purdue University Online Writing Lab, known as Purdue OWL, is commonly considered the expert resource concerning many citation styles. It's website is freely accessible and offers detailed, current information for the following styles: APA, MLA, IEEE, Chicago, AMA, and ASA. Purdue OWL also offers excellent information about general writing, avoiding plagiarism, and resources specifically for students whose first language is not English.
For citation information on the Purdue OWL website use the Research and Citation Resources link below. (You can find the link to this page on the menu to left of their website homepage.)
Excelsior Online Writing Lab. Excelsior College, much like Purdue University, offers a very comprehensive website speaking to all things academic writing related. In terms of their citation resources, however, you will find only the three most commonly used styles: MLA, APA, and Chicago. If you are needing assistance with one of these three, the Excelsior OWL website is an extremely helpful resource. See the link below for their Citation & Documentation.
A note about databases and pre-made citations:
One of the resources offered to you when using the subscription, research databases is ready made citations. It's important to be aware that these citations are machine generated and may contain errors. It's always a good idea to double check these database generated citations for accuracy.
IN THE FOUR BOXES BELOW YOU WILL SEE RESOURCES FOR SPECIFIC STYLE TYPES. IF YOU DO NOT SEE WHAT YOU NEED, REFER BACK TO THE PURDUE OWL RESEARCH & CITATION WEBSITE FOR ADDITIONAL STYLE TYPES, OR CONTACT YOUR LIBRARIAN.
APA (American Psychological Association) style was established in order to create a simple set of procedures, or “style” guidelines, that would codify the many components of scientific writing. “Scientific” includes both some of the physical sciences as well as the social sciences such as psychology, anthropology, criminal justice, sociology, etc.
The American Psychological Association's own website which offers many examples of the most commonly cited types of sources. For a list of examples for different types of sources, click on the tab entitled, "Style and Grammar Guidelines."
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the language arts, cultural studies, and other humanities disciplines.
MLA’s own website is not complete, but it does offer examples of how to cite five basic source types. You can click on an entry to get more information, as well as find links to posts with more examples.
RIT has no defined style for "Harvard Referencing." Instead we recommend using Bournemouth's guidelines and resources found below along with BibGuru, a third party citation management tool. TAKE NOTE: the recommendation and examples are different in these two resources as there is no controlling authority. Ask your professor which flavor of Harvard they want to see in your paper.
The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) referencing system is commonly used in technical fields, typically electrical, electronic and computer systems engineering. In the IEEE referencing style, a number [X] is inserted at the point in your writing where you cite another author's work. At the end of your work, the full reference [X] of the work is provided. Citations and their corresponding references are provided in the order they appear throughout your writing.