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NSCI 162 Fundamentals of Biology II: MLA/APA Citations

This guide introduces students to resources for their biology assignment.

Using Popular Citation Styles

The two most popular styles used in research papers are APA (American Psychological Association) 7th edition and MLA (Modern Language Association) 9th edition. APA is used in the areas of behavioral and social science. MLA is used in the humanities area. If interested in a citation generator, we have the BibGuru link below.

There are formatting rules one follows when writing a research paper (margins, page numbers, titles, capitalization, etc.), creating in-text citations in the body of the paper, and writing full citations in the References or the Works Cited page (the last page). View the APA  or the MLA sample paper. Some professors may ask you to submit your papers to Turnitin, a plagiarism checking database.

You must have both the in-text citations and the References or Works Cited page which is a list of all sources you used for your paper. 

Examples of APA/MLA References

Sample APA  Reference:
Bulletti, C., Coccia, M. E., Battistoni, S., & Borini, A. (2010). Endometriosis and infertility. Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics27(8), 441–447.

In-text Citation:
(Bulletti, Coccia, Battistoni, & Borini, 2010, p. 441).

Sample MLA Works Cited:
Bulletti, Carlo, et al. “Endometriosis and Infertility.” Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, vol. 27, no. 8, 2010, pp. 441–447, doi:10.1007/s10815-010-9436-1.

In-text Citation:
(Bulletti et al. 441).

Let us practice! How would you cite this article? 
Oral contraceptives and risk of endometriosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.  by Vercellini, P; Eskenazi, B; Consonni, D; Somigliana, E; Parazzini, F; Abbiati, A; Fedele, L. HUMAN REPRODUCTION UPDATE, 03/2011, Volume 17, Issue 2.

Diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis. by Wellbery, C. AMERICAN FAMILY PHYSICIAN, 10/1999, Volume 60, Issue 6.


Why Should We Use Citations?

Why Do We Need to Cite Sources for Papers or Presentations?

  • We need to acknowledge another person's work and ideas and give him credit.
  • You have more credibility because your paper shows you reviewed, evaluated, and selected sources during the research process
  • You avoid plagiarism.
  • Your sources are easier to find. Readers can find the sources you used.

How Do You Incorporate Sources Within Your Paper or Presentation?

  • Quoting-Copy a short passage word for word, set off by quotation marks.
  • Summarizing--Restate the main ideas in your own words which is shorter than the origiinal
  • Paraphrasing--Take an idea and put it in your own words.

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