Deaf Women: Assignment and Resources

This guide focuses on successful global Deaf women.


We now have all issues of American Annals of the Deaf available through the JSTOR database which should make your research easier. 

Essay #2: Your essay will be related to an in-depth analysis of the characteristics of De’VIA as follows:
o learn from having seen the artworks (identify: who, what, when, where)
o describe formal art elements such as painting, drawing, and sculpture
o analyze the meaning of “Deaf experiences”
o Is there a gender perspective?

Essay #3
Explore how Mary Herring Wright’s perspective of “deaf” from the mid-1920s to the early 1940s in the South connects to the following questions: What does it mean to be “deaf” in terms of gender?  How does the intersection of deaf identity and gender, especially through the historical examples of Deaf women’s lives in the 19th and 20th centuries evolve? Explain the importance of storytelling from her perspective as a deaf black female student. In her own words she writes, “there are many stereotypes that persist about deaf people.”
Sounds like Home covers two major events in American history: The Depression and World War II. In Chapter 7 “The Train Ride to a New World,” Mary was sent to the state school for the deaf and blind in Raleigh in 1935. Describe how she gradually realized the meaning of “home” (her hometown, her family, deaf friends, and school). In Chapter 15 “Accepted at Last,” she described her happiness in several ways. She told stories about other people like Raymond (locked up in the state prison), her baptism, and the summer of 1940.  Mary became a teacher in Chapter 17 “From Student to Teacher.” She earned her first pay (p.258). What was her teaching schedule like? Challenges? 

Re: Deaf Women and their education, look at Karen Christie's website.

De'VIA Resources

In addition to the resources your professor listed, check out the tab Artists and Photographers. You will find individual books on Nancy Rourke and Ann Silver. Deaf Artists in America also has entries on artists like Susan Dupor and Betty Miller. Check out the Deaf Artists and De'VIA InfoGuide
which includes Patti Durr's website: 

Either guide has links to articles about De'VIA. Patti's website lists the articles

Check out the articles: De’VIA: Investigating Deaf Visual Art,  Elements of a Culture, and Deconstructing the Forced Assimilation of Deaf People Via De’VIA Resistance and Affirmation Art.

20 Deaf Artists: Common Motifs is a conference presentation found in Deaf Studies VI: Making the Connection: Conference Proceedings

Check out the posters which list common motifs found in Deaf Art.

Related Books are: Deaf-Gain (chapter on Deaf Art) and Introduction to American Deaf Culture (chapter).

Black Deaf Resources

Deaf School Segregation and Black ASL (Note: Joseph Hill, Interpreting Professor is an expert on Black ASL). See some of his work.
The Segregated Georgia School for the Deaf : 1882-1975

The Legacy of Eliza Taylor--DVD, 

The Hidden Treasure of Black ASL--- The DVD is also available.

Through the years 1867-1977-Light out of darkness: A history of the North Carolina School for the Negro blind and the deaf.  REQUEST via Interlibrary Loan.

Aramburo, A. J. (1989). Sociolinguistic aspects of the black deaf community. In C. Lucas (Ed.), The sociolinguistics of the deaf community. (pp. 103-119). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Aramburo, A. & McAllister, E.(1986). Interpreting for southern black deaf. In M. McIntire (Ed.), Interpreting: The art of cross-cultural mediation. (pp. 107-110). Proceedings of the Ninth National Convention of the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf. Silver Spring, MD. RID Publications.

Hill, J. & McCaskill, C. (2016) Reflections on the Black ASL project. Sign Language Studies, 7, 1, 59-63.

Hill, J. (2017). The importance of the sociohistorical context in sociolinguistics:The case of Black ASL. Sign Language Studies, 18, 1, 41-57.

Lucas, C., Bayley, R., McCaskill, C., & Hill, J. (2015). The intersection of African American English and Black American Sign Language. International Journal of Bilingualism, 19(2), 156–168.

Maxwell, M. M. & Smith-Todd, S. (1986). Black sign language and school integration in Texas. Language in Society, 15, 81-94.

Toliver-Smith, A., & Gentry, B. (2017). Investigating Black ASL: A systematic review. American Annals of the Deaf, 161(5), 560-570.

Woodward, J. (1985, September). Black deaf teachers--short supply. Perspectives for teachers of the hearing impaired, 4, (1), 18-19.
REQUEST via Interlibrary Loan.

Woodward, J. (1976). Black southern signing. Language and Society, 5, 211-218. REQUEST via Interlibrary Loan.

Deaf Black History or Deaf History
Black and Deaf in America: Are We that Different by Ernest Hairston.
Signs of Resistance : American Deaf Cultural History, 1900 to World War II

Deaf Black Women

From Karen Christie's website (2 below)
Chapple, R. L. (2019). Toward a theory of Black Deaf feminism: The quiet invisibility of a population. Affilia: Journal of Women & Social Work, 34(2), 186–198.

Dundas, S.  (2016, January-March).  Time Capsule:  Ida Wynette Gray Hampton.  Gallaudet Museum Newsletter, Vol. 4 (1), pg. 2 [] (Ida Gray Hampton at Gallaudet pdf version)

Obasi, C. (2014). Negotiating the insider/outsider continua: a Black female hearing perspective on research with Deaf women and Black women. Qualitative Research, 14(1), 61–78.

From Karen Christie's website (below)

Wilkins (Williams), B. (1927)  Missionary Work

Wilkins (Williams), B. (1929). Colored Deaf Man Has Shoe Repair Shop

Wilkins (Williams), B. (1929) Are Colored Deaf Neglected?

Resources about Blanche Wilkins Williams from Karen Christie's website.

Racism in the Deaf Community
Anderson, G. B. & Bowe, F. G. (1972). Racism within the deaf community. American Annals of the Deaf, 617-619. 

Stapleton, L. D. (2016). Audism and racism: The hidden curriculum impacting Black d/Deaf college students in the Classroom. Negro Educational Review, 67(1–4), 149–168.

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