Ultrasound Echocardiography Sonography: First frame your search steps:PICO, concept mapping

This guide has been designed to assist students enrolled in RIT's Diagnostic Medical Sonography (Ultrasound) Program including the DMSO 460 Admin & Res in Sonography course.. Students should periodically check this guide for course assignment resource
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PICO-a search strategy

PICO (Patient/Problem/Population , Intervention , Comparison and Outcome)  is a search strategy to help stay focused while searching for scholarly literature.   In developing your search keywords, the following questions to ask are:

  • PATIENT/PROBLEM What are the characteristics of the patient or population or problem that you are researching?
  • INTERVENTION - What is being done to or for this patient or population or problem?
  • COMPARISON - What alternatives can be considered?
  • OUTCOME - What are you trying to measure ?
  • Other search options are: are you looking for therapy (treatment), Diagnosis, Harm/Etiology (identify causes for disease) , Prognosis (estimate patient's clinical course), Prevention?
  • You find different types of medical literature e.g. Systematic reviews, Random Controlled Trials (RCT) , cohort study, case control?  For more definitions click on this CREDO database search link.

Types of EBM literature-systematic reviews, meta analysis

 Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) refers to the process of published literature undergoing additional systematic reviews to ensure accuracy and duplicity since EBM literature is  used to make clinical decisions. 

The Cochrane group of medical/health professionals initiated the EBM process.  The library's Cochrane database is not full text so you will need to use the library's document delivery service(IDS) to obtain fulltext articles.

While searching in Cochrane database, Pubmed database or with GoogleScholar,  articles tagged as meta-analysis, systematic reviews are considered better than case reports. 

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