How to AMA Cite: In-text citing with superscripts

The 11th edition of the AMA Manual of style was created by the American Medical Association for the health, medical and scientific fields. This is a quick visual guide only. You must consult Chapter 3 in the online AMA manual for detailed explanations.

Intext citing with superscripts

AMA  citing includes:

  1. References contain 3 main parts about the : author(s), title, and publisher information.
  2. Online sources are cited the same as print with the addition of a DOI preferably or the URL with the access date at the citation's end.
  3. In text citations are noted with a superscript with the corresponding number in the list of references.
  4. The references list is organized numerically in the order as it appears in the text.
  5. Do not include “personal communications” in the list of references. This includes lectures, class notes, and the like.
  6. Reference citing is found in Section 3 in the AMA manual

 Section 3.6 Intext citing:

  • Each reference should be cited in the text, figures, tables, or boxes of your paper.

  • Add them in consecutive numerical order using superscript arabic numerals.

  • Use arabic superscript numerals outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons
  • It is acceptable for a reference to be cited only in a figure, table, or box and not in the text if it is in sequence with references cited in the text.

For example, if Table 2 contains reference 13, which does not appear in the text, this is acceptable as long as the last reference cited (for the first time) before the first text citation of Table 2 is reference 12.

  • When more than 2 references are cited at a given place in your paper, use hyphens to join the first and last numbers of a closed series; use commas without space to separate other parts of a multiple citation.

For example:  As reported previously,1,3-8,19   The derived data were as follows3,4:

  • References to material not yet accepted for publication or to personal communications (oral, written, or email) are not acceptable as listed references and instead should be included parenthetically in the text

Writing TIP: Avoid placing a superscript reference citation immediately after a number or an abbreviated unit of measure to avoid any confusion between the superscript reference citation and an exponent.

For example    Avoid:

 The 2 largest studies to date included 262 and 183 patients.

Instead use:

The 2 largest studies   to date included 26 patients2 and 18 patients.3

 The 2 largest studies2,3 to date included 26 and 18 patients, respectively.

  • To cite different page numbers from a single reference source at different places in the text, the page numbers are included in the superscript citation and the source appears only once in the list of references. The superscript may include more than 1 page number, citation of more than 1 reference, or both and that all spaces are closed up.

For example:  These patients showed no sign of protective sphincteric adduction.3(p21),9

  • Westman5(pp3,5),9 reported 8 cases in which vomiting occurred.

Reminder: consult the original source which is the library's online AMA Manual Style - Section 3

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